Ica boasts characteristic dunes and a vast desert etched with enigmatic figures, the Nazca Lines, transformed into fertile fields by ancient cultures: The Paracas and the Nazca. Land of valleys, sun, beaches and a Natural Reserve inhabited by a lush variety of flora and fauna, it is also a mysterious land of villages, home of fine wine and "pisco", Afro-Peruvian music, and an oasis like the Huacachina, a patch of life in the heart of a blanket of sand. The province of Ica is located in the central south coast of the Peruvian seaboard. It is considered the center where the important pre-inca civilizations Nasca (300 years b.C.) and Paracas (700 years b.C.) developed. The men of Paracas practiced the trepanation of skulls on living bodies using knives made of "obsidiana", a certain kind of volcano rock. They also reached a great development in the art of weaving. The Nasca culture stood out for its admirable knowledge in hydraulic engineering building aqueducts and subterranean canals reinforced by inner walls of stone and roofs of huarango.